Helsinki Stroke Aging Memory (SAM)

Principal Investigator

Timo Erkinjuntti
Contact: Susanna Melkas
Clinical Neurosciences, Neurology,
University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital,


Country Finland
Principal Investigator Timo Erkinjuntti
Contact person (email) Susanna Melkas (
Key publication/reference Pohjasvaara et al. Cerebrovasc Dis 2002;14:228-233
Years in which study conducted 1993-1995
Size 486
Population: Hospital/community Hospital
Selection: consecutive/random Consecutive (3m after stroke)
Admit with previous stroke? Yes
Admit with TIA? Yes
Age range 55-85
Number of centres 1
Control group: number, population, selection None
Initial: Time and data collected/tests administered Records: MedHx, lab tests, MRI,
Detailed 3m:  VRF, neurological exam and clinical interview,  function, psychiatric and NΨ
Subsequent (follow-ups) Survival 12.5 years later
Stroke-related data NIHSS, modified Rankin Scale, Orgogozo Scale, Scandinavian Stroke Scale
Functional tests/data Barthel Index, Schwab England and Blessed Functional Activity Scales, etc
Other medical tests/data Genotyping
Neuropsychological tests Test battery
MRI scans, when and how many Initial (n=396)
PET scans No
Psychiatric exams/diagnoses Dementia (CDR, Global Deterioration Scale), Beck Depression Scale, DSM-IV major depression
Intervention trialled? No

CT=computed tomography scan, MedHx=medical history, VRF=vascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, obesity, smoking etc.), NΨ=neuropsychological, TIA=transient ischemic attack, m=month, y=year