Older Australian Twins Study

CHeBA Longitudinal Study: Older Australian Twins Study
Since 2007, the longitudinal Older Australian Twins Study has investigated the genetic and environmental contributions to healthy ageing, in particular ageing in the absence of brain dysfunction and disease, in twins aged 65 years and beyond.


The Older Australian Twins Study is a longitudinal study investigating healthy brain ageing in older twins (65+ years). Healthy ageing is characterised by low levels of disability, high cognitive and functional capacity, and an active engagement in life. The most important ingredient of healthy ageing is a healthy brain, bereft of age-related diseases and dysfunction. Brain ageing and brain diseases are determined by multiple genetic factors that interact with environmental influences. Since identical twins share 100% of their genetic code, whereas non-identical twins share half their genetic information, detailed comparisons of these two groups has the potential to discover new genes involved in cognitive decline or resilience.

OATS commenced in New South Wales in January 2007, in Queensland in December 2007, and in Victoria in February 2008. Since the OATS study started we have followed our twin volunteers up every two years to check on their psychological and physical health. Participants undergo rigorous medical and cognitive function tests, with many participants also providing bloods samples and having a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of their brain. OATS assessed 623 participants at baseline, 450 had a 2nd follow-up between 2009-2013, and 392 had a third follow-up between 2012 and 2016.

OATS Assesments

OATS Assesments

Between 2012 and 2017, as part of a OATS imaging sub-study, many participants were invited to undergo positron emission tomography (PET) scans, measuring deposition of amyloid plaques in the brain. Amyloid plaques are thought to predict memory decline with age. Performing these scans in twins will help us to establish how these amyloid plaques relate to performance in memory and thinking ability. We also aim to determine if there is a genetic component, and if there are any potentially modifiable environmental factors that may be contributing to the development of the plaques. For this sub-study, 207 participants in New South Wales and Victoria were assessed and scanned.

Recently, OATS has moved its participant assessment online – you can learn more about the Older Australian Twins Study Online by clicking here.

The OATS Study has collected a unique data set from which we can examine genetic and environmental influences on a range of ageing-related issues. In particular we are investigating links between cognitive function and brain chemistry over time which has not been looked at previously. The diversity and depth of our work has also allowed us to form collaborative partnerships with other twin studies around the world. These collaborations are important as we have the opportunity to further enlarge our sample size and thereby better address genetic questions, which require large samples.

To request OATS data please contact the CHeBA Research Bank via email on CHeBAData@unsw.edu.au for a current application form.


The OATS aims to find out what influences memory and thinking as we age. It investigates environmental influences such as lifetime physical and mental activity, socioeconomic environment, and nutrition. It also investigates how biological factors such as hypertension and antioxidant levels interact with genes to influence brain ageing. Over time, the expression of genes varies depending on different influences in the environment, and by studying twins, OATS aims to determine which influences on the ageing process are genetic, which are environmental, and how the two interact.

Data Access

OATS shares data and biological samples provided by our participants with other research groups, both at other universities, research institutes and commercial companies. Data sharing occurs via application to the CHeBA Research Bank and involves a review for scientific rigour by the OATS Governance Committee. Sharing enhances the possibility of science and/or medical breakthroughs and increases the chance that preventative and interventional therapies will be applied broadly in the wider community.

If you are/were an OATS participant and this data sharing arrangement raises any concerns for you, you can contact our team by emailing CHeBAData@unsw.edu.au or by phoning 02 9385 7357.


Older Australian Twins Study Newsletter, December 2021

Older Australian Twins Study Newsletter, December 2020

Older Australian Twins Study Newsletter, December 2017


For all CHeBA publications, see Publications.

Methodology Papers

Authors Title Journal
Sachdev PS, Lammel A, Trollor JN, Lee T, Wright MJ, Ames D, et al. A comprehensive neuropsychiatric study of elderly twins: the Older Australian Twins Study. Twin Res Hum Genet., 2009;12(6):573-582. doi.org/10.1375/twin.12.6.573
Sachdev PS, Lee T, Wen W, Ames D, Batouli AH, Bowden J, et al. The contribution of twins to the study of cognitive ageing and dementia: the Older Australian Twins Study. Int Rev Psychiatry, 2013;25(6):738-747. doi.org/10.3109/09540261.2013.870137

Latest Papers

Authors Title Journal
Matthew WK Wong, Anbupalam Thalamuthu,  Nady Braidy,  Karen A Mather, Yue Liu, Liliana Ciobanu, Bernhardt T Baune, Nicola J Armstrong, John Kwok, Peter Schofield, Margaret J Wright, David Ames, Russell Pickford, Teresa Lee, Anne Poljak, Perminder S Sachdev Genetic and environmental determinants of variation in the plasma lipidome of older Australian twins Journal: eLife, 2020;9:e58954. doi:10.7554/eLife.58954
Siddharth Raj, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Nicola J Armstrong, Margaret J Wright, John B Kwok, Julian N Trollor, David Ames, Peter R Schofield, Henry Brodaty, Perminder S Sachdev, Karen A Mather Investigating Olfactory Gene Variation and Odour Identification in Older Adults Journal: Genes (Basel), 2021;12(5):669.  doi:10.3390/genes12050669


Current Students

Course type Student Supervisor(s) University
PhD Abdullah Alqarni Wei Wen UNSW
PhD Rebecca Koncz Perminder Sachdev UNSW
PhD Andrea Lammel Perminder Sachdev Macquarie
PhD Annette Spooner Perminder Sachdev, Arcot Sowmya UNSW
PhD Abdusalam Toyin Ademola Perminder Sachdev, Anbu Thalamuthu, Karen Mather UNSW
Honours Andy Yu Wei Wen UNSW
PhD Chao Dong Wei Wen UNSW
PhD Yue Liu Wei Wen, Perminder Sachdev, Nady Braidy UNSW
PhD Annabel Matison Karen Mather UNSW

Completed Students

Title Student Supervisor(s) University Year
How does mood affect global cognitive performance? Christabella Surono Dr Vibeke Catts, Dr Teresa Lee ILP 2021
Using Machine Learning to Predict the Onset of Alzheimer’s Disease Ewan Barnett Annette Spooner, Professor Arcot Sowmya Honours 2021
Examining the heritability of the spatial distribution of brain white matter fibre tracts using diffusion tensor imaging scans of OATS by employing Data Curves’ Depths Andy Yu Associate Professor Wei Wen Honours 2021
OATS scans to investigate vascular cognitive impairment prediction model by plasma lipidomics Chao Dong Dr Braidy Nady; Professor Perminder Sachdev; Dr Anne Poljak; Associate Professor Wei Wen PhD 2021
Association of nutrition and cognitive health among older adults Xi Chen Professor Henry Brodaty; Professor Perminder Sachdev; Dr Liu Zhixin; Associate Professor Fiona O’Leary  PhD 2021
Heritability of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and Associated Inflammation in Older Australian Twins Tanya Duckworth Professor Julian Troller, Professor Greg Roach CQU, Honours 2012
Genetic and Environmental Influences on Neuropsychological Functioning in Later Life: The Older Australian Twins Study Teresa Lee Professor Perminder Sachdev UNSW, PhD 2013
Genetic and Environmental Influences on Brain Structure and Biochemistry in the Elderly: Data from the Older Australian Twins Study S.A.H.Batouli Professor Perminder Sachdev, Professor Julian Trollor, Associate Professor Wei Wen UNSW, PhD 2013
Examination of DNA Methylation in the APOA1 Gene Jessica Lazarus Dr Karen Mather, Associate Professor John Kwok (NeuRA) UNSW, Honours 2013
Genetics of the White Matter Integrity in the Ageing Brain Sri Chandana Kanchibhotla Dr Karen Mather UNSW, Masters 2015
The Relationships of Inflammation with Brain Structures in Older Individuals as Revealed by Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques Jiyang Jiang Associate Professor Wei Wen, Professor Julian Trollor, Professor Perminder Sachdev UNSW, PhD 2016
Homocysteine Levels & May Be Depression, Dementia, Cognitive Performance, Neuroimaging Ng Wan Qi (Sandra) Dr Karen Mather UNSW, ILP 2016
Brain Networks in Healthy Ageing and Psychiatric Conditions Alistair Perry Associate Professor Wei Wen, Professor Perminder Sachdev, Professor Michael Breakspear UNSW, PhD 2017
Glucose and Brain Health: Lessons from the Older Australian Twins Study Emily Hartman Professor Katherine Samaras University of Notre Dame, Honours 2018
Investigating the Use of Genetic Risk Scores for Hippocampal Volumes in Older Adults Wey-Lynn Liew Dr Karen Mather UNSW, ILP 2018
Nature and Nurture: Insights From Genetic, Environmental and Epigenomic Studies of Late-Life Depression Ruby Tsang Dr Karen Mather UNSW, PhD 2018
Longitudinal Changes in Episodic Memory Performance and Brain Volumes, and their Association, in Older Australian Twins Dansen Ken-Gin Cho Dr Vibeke Catts, Dr Teresa Lee UNSW, ILP 2019
Investigating the Relationship Between Diet, Lipids and DNA Methylation in Older Adults Jun woo Park Dr Karen Mather UNSW, ILP 2019
Investigating the Genetics of Olfaction in Older Adults Siddharth Raj Dr Karen Mather UNSW, ILP 2019
Investigating the Transcriptome Signature of Depression: Employing Co-expression Network, Candidate Pathways and Machine Learning Approaches Liliana Ciobanu Professor Berhard Baune, Dr Catherine Toben Uni Adelaide, PhD 2019
The Role of Peripheral Blood MicroRNA as a Biomarker of Alzheimer’s Disease Helen Wu Dr Karen Mather, Professor Perminder Sachdev, Professor Henry Brodaty   UNSW, PhD 2019
Comprehensive Identification of Natural Variation in the Human Plasma Lipidome Signature using Mass Spectrometry: Relevance to Promoting Healthy Ageing
Matthew Wong Dr Anne Poljak UNSW, PhD 2019
The relationship between dietary patterns and neurocognitive health among older adults Yue Liu Associate Professor Wei Wen, Professor Perminder Sachdev, Dr Nady Braidy UNSW, PhD 2020


Study Coordinator

Dr Amanda Selwood

OATS Investigators

Professor David Ames
Professor Bernhard Baune
Professor Henry Brodaty
Dr Vibeke Catts
Dr John Crawford
Dr Teresa Lee
Professor Nick Martin
Dr Karen Mather
Professor Christopher Rowe
Professor Perminder Sachdev
Professor Katherine Samaras
Professor Peter Schofield
Professor Julian Trollor
Associate Professor Wei Wen
Associate Professor Margie Wright

OATS Collaborators and Researchers

Professor Lesley Campbell
Dr Mari Kondo
Dr Michelle Lupton
Dr Julia Muenchhoff
Dr Anne Poljak
Dr Anbupalam Thalamuthu